ESCHED

The ESCHED keyword expects the name of an include file with extension .esched, where a basic subset of the Eclipse SCHEDULE keywords can be defined using the Eclipse syntax (WELSPECS, COMPDAT, etc.). For example:

#====== wells ===========
esched injection_model.esched

Note that the same well may be entered in both ESCHED and WELL_DATA input – the simulator will process internally both inputs into an event table for that well. For the conventions and the keywords supported within the .esched include file, see list below

Conventions within esched input files

Within a .esched file the data syntax and conventions are those of Eclipse rather than PFLOTRAN-OGS, in the following respects:

  • The data is placed on a new line, after the keyword. The values are normally delimited by spaces (although tabs are accepted), and may be split across a number of lines. Data will be read until either the correct number of items have been processed, or a / terminating character is encountered. If all the expected values are present, a / character may still be added and will do no harm.

  • Defaults may be used – for example, 3* implies 3 default values.

  • Depths are measured downwards.

  • The basic ordering scheme is natural ordering – with the I-index changing fastest, then the J-index, and with the K-index changing slowest. The K-order is down the columns of cells.

Within each keyword, arguments that are not supported - marked in red in this wiki - are mainly ignored by the simulator.

COMPDAT

Defines data for the completions of one or more wells, example:

COMPDAT
INJE1 1 1 1 1 OPEN 6* Z /
PROD1 10 10 1 1 OPEN 6* Z /
/

Each record specifies the data of a completion, or a set completions spanning a given K-range, and can take up to 14 arguments:

COMPDAT
arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6 arg7 arg8 arg9 arg10 arg11 arg12 arg13 arg14 /

Some of these arguments are not supported and ignored by the simulator, highlighted in red below:

arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6 arg7 arg8 arg9 arg10 arg11 arg12 arg13 arg14 /

The arguments are as follows:

Argument

Meaning

arg1

Well name.

arg1

name of the well the completion belongs to.

arg2

I-location of completed grid block.

arg3

J-location of completed grid block.

arg4

K-location of the shallower completed grid block, for the set of completions associated with record.

arg5

K-location of the deeper completed grid block, for the set of completions associated with record.

arg6

OPEN/SHUT, indicates if a completion is open or shut. AUTO and HEAT are read but ignored. Defaults to OPEN.

arg7

Saturation table number of the pseudo relative permeability used for the well connection. This is not supported, and a non-default value will result in the software throwing an error.

arg8

Well transmissibility factor, also known as completion connection factor (CCF). If defaulted or set to zero, the CCF is computed internally, using the radius (arg9), the connection’s effective Kh (arg10) and the skin factor (arg11). If a CCF > 0 is found, its value is used directly by the simulator, skipping the internal calculation. The CCF units are:

  • cP.rm3/day/bar, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • cP.rb/day/psi, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg9

Well diameter, used to compute the CCF if arg8 is defaulted, ignored otherwise. Defaults to 0.3048 m. Its units are:

  • m, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • ft, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg10

The connection’s effective \(K_h\) (permeability x thickness). If defaulted is computed internally using the grid block data. If a value > 0 is found, and the CCF value in arg8 is defaulted, this quantity is used to compute the CCF, ignored otherwise. The \(K_h\) units are:

  • mD.m, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file.

  • mD.ft, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file.

arg11

Skin factor, used to compute the CCF if arg8 is defaulted, ignored otherwise. It is dimensionless. Defaults to zero.

arg12

D-factor to model non-Darcy flow effects. Not supported, and a non-zero or non-default value will result in the software throwing an error.

arg13

Well drilling direction, can only take three values: X, Y and Z. Defaults to Z.

arg14

Pressure equivalent radius \(r_0\) , which is used to compute the CCF if arg8 is defaulted, ignored otherwise. If a value > 0 is not found, it is computed internally using the grid block data. Its units are:

  • m, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • ft, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

The computation of CCF, \(K_h\) and \(r_0\) are done accordingly to the Peaceman formulae (see Equation (2) in the well model).

DATES

Indicates dates for which the simulator is asked to output restart file and print report information. See example:

DATES
1 Mar 2000 /
1 Feb 2001 /
/

Each record expect a maximum of 4 arguments:

DATES
arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 /
/

Some of these arguments are not supported and ignored by the simulator, highlighted in red below:

arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 /

The arguments are as follows:

Argument

Meaning

arg1

Well name.

arg1

Day of the month, from 1 to 31.

arg2

Short name for the month in three characters, one of the following;

  • JAN, FEB, MAR, APR, MAY, JUN, JUL/JLY, AUG, SEP, OCT, NOV, DEC.

arg3

4 digits specifying a year (e.g. 1989).

arg4

Time in the format HH:MM:SS. Defaults to 00:00:00. Values different than the defaults are ignored.

FIELD

If this keyword is found, field units are assumed for data entered in the .esched include file. By default units are assumed to be metric.

METRIC

If this keyword is found, metric units are assumed for data entered in the .esched include file. By default units are already assumed to be metric.

WCONINJE

Used to enter data to control injection wells. Example below:

WCONINJE
INJE1 GAS OPEN RATE 1000000 1* 500 /
/

Up to 15 arguments are expected for each well. Each record corresponds to a well:

WCONINJE
arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6 arg7 arg8 arg9 arg10 arg11 arg12 arg13 arg14 arg15 /
/

Some of these arguments are not supported and ignored by the simulator, highlighted in red below:

arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6 arg7 arg8 arg9 arg10 arg11 arg12 arg13 arg14 arg15 /

The arguments are as follows:

Argument

Meaning

arg1

Well name.

arg2

Injector type. The options supported are: GAS, WATER or SOLVENT. For any other injector type the simulator will throw an error.

arg3

Status of the well. OPEN and SHUT supported, everything else is ignored (STOP and AUTO not supported).

arg4

Control mode. Only two options are supported, RATE and BHP. If any other option is found, this is ignored, and RATE is assumed.

arg5

Surface flow rate target or upper limit. The units are:

  • sm3 /day, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • stb/day, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg6

Reservoir fluid volume rate target or upper limit. Not supported, if a value is found, the simulator ignores it, considering no target or upper limit.

arg 7

BHP target or upper limit. The units are:

  • barsa, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • psi, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg8

THP target or upper limit. Not supported; if a value is entered, the simulator ignores it, considering no THP target or upper limit.

arg9

Injection well VFP number. Not supported – value ignored.

arg10-15

Not supported, values ignored.

WCONPROD

Enters data to control production wells. Example below:

WCONPROD
PROD1 OPEN WRAT 1* 10000 3* 100 /
/

Up to 20 arguments are expected for each well. Each record corresponds to a well:

WCONPROD
arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6 arg7 arg8 arg9 arg10 arg11 ... arg20 /
/

Some of these arguments are not supported and ignored by the simulator, highlighted in red below:

arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6 arg7 arg8 arg9 arg10 arg11 … arg20 /

The arguments are as follows:

Argument

Meaning

arg1

Well name.

arg2

Status of the well. OPEN and SHUT supported, everything else is ignored (STOP and AUTO not supported).

arg3

Control mode. Any other option than those supported is ignored, and the well produces at the BHP limit without any rate target or upper limits. The following options are supported:

  • ORAT, WRAT, GRAT, LRAT, BHP.

arg4

Oil rate target or upper limit. Defaults to no target or upper limit. The units are:

  • sm3 /day, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • stb/day, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg5

Water rate target or upper limit. Defaults to no target or upper limit. The units are:

  • sm3 /day, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • stb/day, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg6

Gas rate target or upper limit. Defaults to no target or upper limit. The units are:

  • sm3/day, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • Mscf/day, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg7

Liquid rate target or upper limit. Defaults to no target or upper limit. The units are:

  • sm3/day, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • stb/day, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg8

Reservoir fluid volume rate target or upper limit. No supported – the simulator ignores any value entered and assumes no target or upper limit.

arg9

BHP target or lower limit. Defaults to 10.133 barsa. The units are:

  • barsa, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • psi, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg10

THP target or lower limit. No supported – the simulator ignores any value entered and assumes no target or lower limit.

arg11-20

Not supported, values ignored.

WELLOPEN

Reopens one or more wells previously defined and shut. Example:

WELLOPEN
INJE1 /
INJE2 /
/

Each record corresponds to a well, and has only one argument, which is the well name.

WELLOPEN
arg1 /
/

Argument

Meaning

arg1

Well name.

WELLSHUT

Shuts one or more wells previously defined and open. Example:

WELLSHUT
PROD1 /
INJE1 /
/

Each record corresponds to a well, and has only one argument, which is the well name.

WELLSHUT
arg1 /
/

Argument

Meaning

arg1

Well name.

WELLSPEC

Introduces one or more wells, specifying name, location of the well head and the reference depth of the BHP. Example below:

WELLSPEC
INJE1 Field 1 1 -1.0 /
PROD1 'GG' 10 10 2000 /
/

Each record corresponds to a well, and can have up to 7 arguments:

WELLSPEC
arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6 arg7 /
/

Some of these arguments are not supported and ignored by the simulator, highlighted in red below:

arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6 arg7 /

The arguments are as follows:

Argument

Meaning

arg1

Well name.

arg2

Name of the group the well belongs to. Defaults to Field.

arg3

I-location of the well head.

arg4

J-location of the well head.

arg5

BHP reference depth. Defaults to the depth of the centre of the grid block that contains the shallowest well connection. Has the following units:

  • sm3/day, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • stb/day, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

arg6-7

Not supported – the simulator ignores these arguments.

WELSPECS

Introduces one or more wells, specifying name, location of the well head and the reference depth of the BHP. Example below:

WELSPECS
INJE1 Field 1 1 -1.0 /
PROD1 'GG' 10 10 2000 /
/

Each record corresponds to a well, and can have up to 17 arguments:

WELSPECS
arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6 ... arg17 /
/

Some of these arguments are not supported and ignored by the simulator, highlighted in red below:

arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 arg6arg17 /

The arguments are as follows:

Argument

Meaning

arg1

Well name.

arg2

Name of the group the well belongs to. Defaults to Field.

arg3

I-location of the well head.

arg4

J-location of the well head.

arg5

BHP reference depth. Defaults to the depth of the centre of the grid block that contains the shallowest well connection. Has the following units:

  • sm3 /day, if METRIC units are specified for the .esched include file

  • stb/day, if FIELD units are specified for the .esched include file

Arg6-17

Not supported - the simulator ignores these arguments.

TIME

Introduces one or more report times. An example is:

TIME
200 300 365 /

When multiple values are included, their value must grow with the order in which are entered. The time units is day for both METRIC and FIELD units.

If one of the dates specified is beyond the final simulation time found in the main input deck, this will be ignored.